Aristotles doctrine of the mean, outlined in section 2, begins with a general explanation he will gradually defend. Nicomachean ethics 1 book i 3 book ii 23 book iii 37 book iv 60 book v 81 book vi 103 book vii 119 book viii 143. Nicomachean ethics by aristotle book ii summary and analysis. As already mentioned in the analysis of book one, aristotle holds that the happiness of man can be defined by determining the function proper to man. Aristotles nicomachean ethics, book 3 ethics and moral theory. From kant to john rawls, all philosophers have discussed the issue with aristotle on the good life and on happiness to summarize, aristotle raises the question of virtue. Chapter iii cliffsnotes study guides book summaries. Virtue being, as we have seen, of two kinds, intellectual and moral, intellectual virtue is for the most part both produced and increased by instruction, and therefore requires experience and time. A brilliant thinker with wideranging interests, he wrote important works in physics, biology, poetry, politics, morality, metaphysics, and ethics. Exploring ethics chapters 1,2,57 cheat sheet by lsanchez. A child or an animal can act voluntarily but cannot make a decision.
The nicomachean ethics book 2, chapter 3 1104b51105a17 summary you can tell a persons characteristics by what pleases or pains them, says aristotle. We have tons of study questions for you here, all completely free. Both the voluntary and the involuntary having been delimited, we must next discuss choice. The nicomachean ethics by aristotle is the most influential book of the moral philosophy.
So these virtues are being defined as being virtues only if they lead to happiness. Nicomachean ethics by aristotle book vi summary and analysis. A man is temperate if he abstains from bodily pleasures and finds this abstinence itself enjoyable, profligate if he feels it irksome. These acts cannot be prescribed exactly, but must avoid excess and defect. In books viii and ix of his masterpiece of moral philosophy, the nicomachean ethics, aristotle gives perhaps the most famous of all philosophical discussions of friendship. Yes, you need to do more reading, specifically in book 2 on the nicomachean ethics, where aristotle sets out what precisely virtue consists in. He says that the highest activity must be in accordance with the virtue. This study guide consists of approximately 44 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of nicomachean ethics. It is named after his son, nicomachus, because it is believed to have been recorded by him. It will serve newcomers as an informative, accessible introduction to the nicomachean ethics and to many issues in aristotles philosophy, but also has much to offer advanced scholars. Also, in book ii, i have added to aristotles list of ethical virtues and vices with a modern list of my own. The ten books which comprise it are based on notes from his lectures at the lyceum and were either edited by or dedicated to aristotles son, nicomachus in nicomachean ethics, aristotle focuses on the importance of continually behaving virtuously and developing virtue rather than committing specific good actions. A summary of book i in aristotles nicomachean ethics. Dover thrift editions are the most affordable paperback classics out there.
Note that the chapter headings are supplied by the translator. Having defined voluntary and involuntary action, we next have to examine the nature of choice. Aristotle argues that someones pleasure or pain following an action gives an indication of that persons state. The varieties of friendship can be distinguished by determining what kind of good is the object of both parties.
Aristotles nicomachean ethics, book 3 ethics and moral. Orethics chapter 3 you must first complete orethics chapter 2 before viewing this lesson. Ethics presented by rinju r saranya kapur shivraj singh negi if it is in our power to act nobly, it. The moral code of a society determines what is right within only that society 6. This copy of aristotles nicomachean ethics includes a biography and extensive introduction. In a couple of places i have revised the headings slightly. Nicomachean ethics iii commentary by paula gottlieb. A spontaneous or spur of the moment act is not a decision either. For this appears to be intimately connected with virtue. Decision plays a key role in virtue, since decisions set the virtuous apart. They are public domain translations, easily found online, but are handy if you want a hardcopy. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. A summary of book iii in aristotles nicomachean ethics. Nicomachean ethics 5 good judge of that subject, and the man who has received an allround education is a good judge in general.
Here, aristotle emphasizes that we must decide to act, and before we decide, we must deliberate. There are three varieties of friendship, corresponding to the three objects of affection. Nicomachean ethics study guide contains a biography of aristotle, literature essays, a complete etext, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Nicomachean ethics book three summary and analysis aristotle. In the latter part of book iii aristotle gives an account of two specific virtues.
The commentary is noteworthy for its frequent citations of relevant passages from other works in aristotles corpus, which often shed new light on the texts. There is a dispute as to what constitutes happiness whether it is pleasure, honor, health, wealth, knowledge or something else. Book ii chapter 3 an index of our dispositions is afforded by the pleasure or pain that accompanies our actions. Chapter i various definitions of justice summary the study of justice and injustice has three main elements. In the nicomachean ethics, which he is said to have dedicated to his son nicomachus, aristotles guiding question is what is the best thing for a human being.
Moral virtue, how produced, in what materials and in what manner exhibited. Nicomachean ethics5 good judge of that subject, and the man who has received an allround education is a good judge in general. Taylor presents a clear and faithful new translation of one of the most famous and influential texts in the history of western thought, accompanied by an analytical and critical commentary focusing on philosophical issues. The highest good is happiness, which means living well.
Although all decisions are voluntarywithin a persons controlnot all voluntary acts are decisions. Decisionas opposed to mere appetite, wish, or beliefis also proper to virtue. In this lecture from my fall 2011 ethics class at marist college, we discuss aristotles nichomachean ethics book 3, specifically. Nicomaquean ethics book ii chapter 3 book ii chapter 3. The nicomachean ethics, aristotle the nicomachean ethics is the name normally given to aristotles bestknown work on ethics. There is no objective standard to judge one societal code better than another 3.
The nicomachean ethics is one of aristotles great works and discusses virtues. Humans are a higher form of animal, and animals respond to pleasure and pain. The internet classics archive nicomachean ethics by. In books ii to iv of the nicomachean ethics aristotle. Please purchase the course before starting the lesson. The moral code of our own society has no special status. Because decision involves reason and thought, what is decided must first have been deliberated. Furthermore, decisions are not appetites, wishes, or beliefs. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. Aristotle on selflove and love of friends nicomachean ethics book 9 philosophy core concepts duration.
Virtue however is concerned with emotions and actions, and it is only voluntary feelings and actions for which praise and blame are given. Book iii 1 since virtue is concerned with passions and actions, and on voluntary passions and actions praise and blame are bestowed, on those that are involuntary pardon, and sometimes also pity, to distinguish the voluntary and the involuntary is presumably necessary for those who are studying the nature of virtue, and useful also for legislators with a view to the assigning both of honours and of punishments. It includes the individuals good, but also the good for the state, which is a collective of individuals. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of nicomachean ethics and what it. Nicomachean ethics aristotle mcmaster faculty of social. Chapter summary for aristotles nicomachean ethics, book 3 summary.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The work, which plays a preeminent role in defining aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the lyceum. Book 2, chapter 3 1104b51105a17 you can tell a persons characteristics by what pleases or pains them, says aristotle. Aristotle now discusses what virtue or excellence must be. For example, if someone enjoys abstaining from pleasures, hes moderate and levelheaded. If a students ethical habits are not good, he will be hindered from accepting ethical knowledge. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. If they whine and complain about giving up something they like, theyre not moderate in pleasure.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of nicomachean ethics and what it means. He who acts must have knowledge, he must choose his act, and his act must proceed from his character. Michael pakaluk presents the first systematic study in english of these books, showing how important aristotles treatment of friendship is to his ethics as a whole. The table to contents has also been updated to include all the medieval chapter headings under each book, so if you prefer to jump to a section via that means, this is also open to you. In the course of reading nicomachean ethics book i, one of the problems i have encountered is the generalizations that socrates makes about happiness. Nicomachean ethics is the name of aristotles best known work on ethics. Courage has a very important place in aristotelian ethics. Aristotle waits until book ten to complete the logic set forth in book one with regard to determining the ultimate good for man by examining a human beings highest capacities. All in all with this new edition of the kindebook, if you are studying this work, the kindle edition, i feel, surpasses. The nicomachean ethics is very often abbreviated ne, or en, and books and chapters are generally referred to by roman and arabic numerals, respectively, along with corresponding bekker numbers. Page 1 page 2 page 3 summary our evaluation of a persons actions depends to some extent on whether those actions are voluntary, involuntary, or nonvoluntary. It, like the arts, is acquired by repetition of the corresponding acts. Politics as master science of the good that end which is most sought for its own sake is the good for man, which is subject of the science of politics.467 795 1178 1314 1319 1313 537 592 641 1171 752 651 1220 137 472 1507 463 1426 1128 536 1178 360 524 1434 466 1058 294 214 1439 71 196 533 243 1023